Hunting with shotguns began in the 17th century with the matchlock shotgun. Later flintlock shotguns and percussion cap guns were used. Shotguns were loaded with black powder and lead shot through the muzzle in the 17th century to the late 19th century. The transition from flint to “detonating” or percussion lock firearms and from muzzle to breech loading guns was largely driven by innovations made by English gun makers such as Joseph Manton, at which time wildfowling was extremely popular in England both as a pastime and as a means of earning a living, as described by Peter Hawker in his diaries. Damascus barrels are safe to shoot (where proofed) only with black powder charges. When smokeless powder was invented in the late 19th century, steel barrels were made. Damascus barrels which were made of a twisted steel could not take the high pressure of smokeless powder. Fred Kimble, Tanner, and Adam, duck hunters from Illinois, invented the shotgun choke in 1886. This is a constriction at the end of the barrel. This allowed for longer range shooting with the shotgun and kept the pattern of shot tighter or looser according to which type of choke is being used. Until 1886, shotguns had cylinder bore barrels which could only shoot up to 25 yards, so duck hunting was done at close range. After 1886, market hunters could shoot at longer ranges up to forty five yards with a full choke barrel and harvest more waterfowl. Shotguns became bigger and more powerful as steel barrels were being used, so the range was extended to sixty yards.
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The tradition is that, in this day, lovers to sent each other Valentine cards,share Valentine love messages or giving flowers. Nowadays people also go to fancy parties or share expensive gifts. But the Valentine cards are surely not forgotten.They are a very impressive way to show your love to the dear ones.Valentine cards can show up angels that surround us in the form of the loves ones, flowers that express our feelings when we lack of words, sweet love messages and poems, or, if we talk about some weddings anniversaries, special messages on this occasion. They are beautifully decorated and made up in the Valentine’s way, of course with a lot of red in them, the colour of passion and love.